Anemia is the commonest disorder in pregnancy. Its prevalence in India varies between 50 to 70%. It is an important factor for maternal and prenatal morbidity and mortality so, there is major difference in developed and developing countries. Anemia during pregnancy is especially a concern because it is associated with low birth weight, premature birth and maternal morality. Anemia in pregnant is more common in poor socio-economic status.
Anemia is a medical condition in which there is not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the tissues in the body. In anemia you can feel tired and weak, if it goes unseated. It can increase your risk of serious complications. It is normal to have mild anemia when you are pregnant. But you may have more severe anemia due to low iron or vitamin level. All pregnant women are at high risk for becoming anemic because they need more iron and folic acid than usual.
Types of Anemia in Pregnancy:
Iron deficient anemia: Iron deficient anemia is the most common cause of anemia during pregnancy.
Folate deficiency: Folate is the vitamin found naturally incertain foods like green leafy vegetables. During pregnancy it’s demand increases. Folate deficiency causes certain type of birth defects such as neural tube abnormality and low birth weight baby
Vit B12 deficiency: Body needs Vit B12 to form healthy RBC. Woman who don’t eat meat and poultry, dairy products and eggs may have Vit B12 deficiency which may contribute to birth defects and preterm labour. When the Hb level is less then she is called anemic.
Causes of Anemia in Pregnancy:
Chronic blood loss due to parasitic infection
Acute blood loss in APH, PPH
Recurrent infections (UTI)
Hemolytic anemia in PIH
Hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia
Signs and Symptoms:
Weaker, loss of appetite, dizziness, palpitation, breathlessness, swelling of feet & eye lids, generalized swelling of body, symptoms of congestive cardiac failure.